Dacwada Badda – Afar Sanadood Kadib

Somalia disputed officers

Maxkamada Cadaaladda Caalamiga waxey shaca ka qaaday afar sanadood ka hor – August 28kii, 2014 in Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya ay hor-keentay dacwad ka dhan ah Jamhuuriyada Kenya, kuna saabsan xuduuda Badweynta Hindiya ee labada dal. Halkii, Nairobi laga sugay inay ka soo war-celiso muddaca dacwada, ayay Oktoobar 7dii, 2015 soo qadintay diidmo ku qotonto laba asbaabood:

  1. In maxkamada aysan awood u lahayn dhagaysiga kiiska. Mar-jaca khilaafka labada dhinacna uu yahay hab kale, sida ku cad heshiiska is-af-garadka (MOU – 2009); iyo
  2. In maxkamada aysan ogolaan codsiga dacwada, bacdamaa Soomaaliya ay jebisay heshiiskii.

Marka hore, dowladda Kenya, waxey ku andacootay in labada dal ay hore ugu heshiiyeen, in khilaafka xuduudda badda ay ku xalin doonaan wadahadal, ka dib marka guddiga UNCLCS uu dhammaystiro dib u eegista dalabka qolfoota badwaynta.

Sida Maxkamada ay ka hor cadeysay qareen Muna Maxamed Cali Sharmaan (Al-Sharmaani), lama hayo meel dowladda Kenya, tan Soomaaliya amase midda Norway ay ku soo hadal qaadeen (qoraal iyo oraahba), in heshiisku yahay mid xeerinaya soohdinta badda Kenya iyo Soomaaliya.

Sidoo kale, REUTER waxey soo tebisay August 28kii, 2014 in wadahadalo xal-doon ah oo in mudda ah socday laysku mari waayay. Sidaas darteedna, dowladda Soomaaliya ay kaga codsatay Maxkamada Cadaaladda Caalamiga inay go’aan ka gaarto xuduud-badeeka labada dal, ayadoo la raacayo qaanuunka badda ee caalamka.

Somalia - Kenya court

Afar sannadood kadib, Maxkamada Cadaaladda Caalamiga waxaa maanta horyaal dacwadii rasmiga ahayd. Soomaaliya waxey jawaab ka soo hor jeeday mudaca Kenya gudbisay Juun 18dii, 2018. Inkastoo, ilaa hadda aan la soo bandhigin jawaabaha la’is-dhaafsaday, haddana maqaalku wuxuu isku dayayaa inuu dib u eego dhacdadii, si looga gudbo sheekooyinka khiyaaliga ah, dersina looga qaato sifooyinka siyaasadeed ee halista ah.

Soomaaliya waxey aaminsan tahay in xuduudeeda badda ay si toos ah ula socoto teeda dulka (xeebta). Taas waxey waafaqsan tahay qaanuunka xuduudaha baddaha caalamka. Halka, Kenya ay ku doodayso in xuduudeeda ay xagal-jiifto, lana xiriirto khadka (jiidinta) loo yaqaan “latitude.” Soohdinta cusub, waxay siinaysaa dalka Kenya dhul bad-jiif ah oo lagu qiyaasay inuu dhan yahay 100,000 kiilomiter oo isku wareeg ah (Sq.Km.).

Is mandhaafku, wuxuu dhashay kadib markii Kenya ay u isticmaashay heshiiskii Abril 2009, si ka duwan ujeeddadiisii. Kenya, ayada oo aan cidna ka tixgelin, ayey 2012kii si rasmi ah u bixisay ruqsado sharci-darro ah oo lagu baarayo 8 (sideed) waaxood, oo ku wada yaal aaga Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya ee Badweynta Hindiya.

Xeer-ilaaliyaha Kenya Githu Muigai, wuxuu ku andacooday in dalkiisu uu 1979kii sheegtay agaas, sida ku cad war-baahinta madaxtooyadooda. Sida ay werisay “Petroleum Corp – 2010,” Kenya waxey ruqsado ka iibisay shirkado caalami ah.

Sidoo kale REUTERS – 6/07/ 2012, waxey soo warisay in Kenya ay si sharci darro ah u siiyay shirkad Talyaani ah oo la yiraah “Eni Energy” waaxyada L-21, L-23 iyo L-24, halka laga siiyey shirkad Fransiis ah oo la yiraah “Total” waaxda L-22. Wargeyska “Oil & Gas Journal – 27/06/2012,” wuxuu qoray in Total ay ku leedahay boqolkii 40 waxaada ay ka howl-gasho shirkad Maraykan ah oo la yiraah “Anadarko Petroleum Corp.”

Somalia xeer-ilaaliye

Warar xog’ogaal ah, ayaa sheegaya in Xeer-Ilaaliyaha Dowladda Soomaaliya, Axmed Cali Daahir uu shirkadaha reer Galbeed ah – Tullow, Eni Energy, FAR, Dominion, Total & Anadarko – ee shidaalka ka baaraya aaga biyaha Soomaaliya ku wargeliyay inay si degdeg ah u joojiyaan howlahooda.

Waxaa iyana soo baxday, in saraakiil Kenyaan ah oo u xog-waramay khubaraa Qaramada Midowbay ay u sheegeen, in haddii lagu heshiiyo xuduuda, shirkad Norwayjian ah oo la yiraah “Statoil” ay danayneyso waaxda L-26 ee aaga biyaha Soomaaliya.

Soomaaliya waxey ka mid tahay dalalkii saxiixay heshiiska “United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea – UNCLOS” wixii ka horeyey May 13kii 1989. Dalalkaas, waxaa lagu adkeyey in dalabkooda qolfoofta badda ay u gudbiyaan guddiga “CLCS” inta ka horeysa May 13ka 2009.  Madashaas oo dib looga dhaco, waxey keeni kartaa in lagu lumiyo xuquuq, masiirka dhul-badeedkana ay la wareegto hay’adda “ISA – International Seabed Authority.”

Jun 2008, Xoghayaha Guud ee QM wuxuu ku baaqay in dowladdaha horumaray ay gacan siiyaan kuwa soo-koraya ee aan awood dhaqaale iyo khibradba u laheyn qabka dalbashada xuquuqda qolfofta badda.

Oktoobar 2008, Wakiilka Xoghayaha Guud ee QM u fadhiya Soomaaliya – Axmedou Ould Cabdallah oo ka jawaabaya baaqa Xoghayaha Guud, ayaa diyaariyey macluumad kooban, si Soomaaliya aysan u lumi xuquuqdeeda.

Desembar 16dii, 2008 Guddiga Amaanka ee QM waxaa la horgeyey warbixintii Soomaaliya. Guddiga wuxuu dib-u-akiday xushmeynta qaranimada, xuduudaha dhulka, madax-banaanida siyaasadeed iyo midnimada Soomaaliyeed.

February 13dii, 2009 dowladda Norway oo ka jawaabeysa baaqa Xoghayaha Guud ee QM ayaa balan qaaday inay u fidin-doonto gargaar khibradeed dalalka Afrika, khaas ahaan bahweynta “ECOWAS – Economic Community of West Africa States,” si ay u qadimaan dalabka qolfofta badda.

Norway, oo soo diyaarisay qoraalka heshiiska Kenya iyo Soomaaliya waxey cadeysay in dan-gaar ah aysan ka laaheyn soohdin sameynta badda Kenya iyo Soomaaliya toona. Weliba, waxey kaloo qirtay in xilkeedu ku ekaa inay xaqiijiso in labada dhinac ay isku diidaneyn dalbasha qolfoofta.

Qiraalkaas, waxaa taageraya warbixin xafiisyada dowladda Kenya isku direen (internal report), oo lahaa “Kenya iyo Soomaaliya waxey ku heshiiyeen in midkoodna midka kale uusan ka hor istaagin gudbinta dalabka qolfoofta.”

Somalia - Cabdishakur Kenya

Abril 5dii, 2009 Safiirka Norway ee fadhiya Nairobi wuxuu socdaal laba maalmood ah ku tegay Muqdisho. Halkaas, wuxuu kula kulmay Madaxweyne Sheikh Shariif Sheikh Axmed iyo Ra’iisul-wasaare Cumar Cabdirashiid. Safiirku wuxuu warbixin buuxdo siiyey Golaha Wasiiradda, oo anshaxiyey mashruuca dalabka qolfofta badda.

Safiirka Norway – Hans Wilheln Longva iyo Ku-Xigeenka Wakiilka Xoghayaha Guud ee QM ee Soomaaliya – Charles Petrie ayaa Maarso 10dii, 2009 kula shiray Nairobi Wasiirka Kaluumeysiga Cabdirahman Aadan Ibrahiim – Ibbi, una dhiibay fartiin u socoto dowladda Soomaaliya.

Abril 7dii, 2009 Soomaaliya iyo Kenya waxey Nairobi ku saxiixdeyn heshiis is-af-garad ah (Memorandum of Understanding – MOU). Dhinaca dowladda Soomaaliya waxaa u saxiixay Cabdiraxman Cabdishakur Warsame – Wasiirka Qorsheynta Qaranka ee Dowladda Ku-Meel-Gaar ah, halka dowladda Kenya uu u saxiixay Moses Wetang’ula – Wasiirka Arrimaha Dibedda. Ujeeddada heshiiska, waxey ahayd in laba dal midkoodna midka kale uusan ka hor istaagin dalabka qolfoofta badda.”

Bil ka hore – Maarso 2009, inta aan heshiiska la saxiixin, Norway waxay soo dirtay nuqulka (draft) heshiiska, si labada dhinac ay uga sii baarandegaan qaabka uu u qoraan yahay. Labada dal midna kuma soo war celin inkastoo, Kenya warcelin la’aanteedu ay aheyd mid ula kac ah, bacdamaa ay aragtay in xaraf fardi ahaa (area) loo qoray jamac (areas). Taas oo macnaha cutubkaas (6aad) ka dhigtay sida ay rabtay.

Sida muuqata, Kenya waxey la tashatay khubaro ku xeel-dheer shuruucda badda oo ay ka heshay xoghaynta “Commonwealth.”  Taasi waxaa u daliil ah in dalabkii Kenya ee qolfoofta oo dhammeystiran uu gaaray guddiga “CLCS,” May 11dii, 2009 maadaama heshiisku uu siiyay fursad lama filaan.

Nofember 2007, shirkad Ingiriis ah oo la yiraah “Gardline Survey Company” ayaa sahan “multi bean survey” ku sameysay aaga ay sheeganeyso. August 1dii, 2009 inkastoo Baarlamanka Soomaaliyeed cod-buuxa ku diiday heshiiskii (MOU), haddana Kenya dheg uma jalaq siin go’aankaas.

Sebtember 3dii, 2009 Kenya waxay warbixin ka hor jeedisay, guddiga “CLCS.” Kadibna, waxaa dalabkii loo gudbiyey guddi-hoosad farsamo,  loona qabtay madal 5/09/2014. Juun 2009, Kenya waxey heshiiskii (MOU) si rasmi ah uga diiwaan gelisay xafiiska heshiisyada caalamka ee xoghaynta QM.

Somalia - Omer-Abdirashid

Lix bilood kadib – Oktoobar 10kii 2009, Ra’iisul-wasaare Cumar Cabdirashid Cali Sharmaarke wuxuu warqad u qoray Xoghayaha Guud ee QM, uu ku tifaftirayey mowqifka Soomaaliya ee xuduudda badda inuu waafaqsan yahay shuruucda caalamiga.

Ra’iisul-wasaaruhu wuxuu ka codsaday Xoghayaha, in Qaramada Midowday ay tixgeliyso go’aan Baarlamaanka Soomaaliya ee ka dhigayay heshiiska Kenya iyo Soomaaliya – wax kuma oolan (null and void).

March 2dii, 2010 Safiirka Soomaaliya ee QM – Dr. Cilmi Axmed Ducaale, ayaa mar labaad u qoray Xoghayaha Guud, inuu tixgeliyo codsigii Dowladda Federalka Soomaaliya. Marka labaad, Kenya waxey  ku andacootay in heshiiska oo laga dhigay “null and void” uu yahay laftiisu heshiis-jebin.

Oktoobar 2011, Ciidamada Kanya waxay weerar ku qaadeen Soomaaliya, ayaga oo burburiyey hanti laayana naf. Sida uu qoray “Foreign Affairs – 11/11/2011,” weerarka Kenya ay ku qaaday Soomaaliya ma aheyn mid looga hor-tagayo khatar, ee waxaa kiciyey [dan dhaqaale] ujeeddo ciidan iyo dhaqdhaqaaq siyaasadeed.

Febraayo 2dii, 2017 dowladda Kenya waxey ku guuldareysatay diidmadii hor u dhaca ahayd (preliminary objections). Walow, shacbiga uu ka walaacay sidee falka nocaan ah u dhici karaa, haddana dacwada badda waxey dib u soo nooleysay shucuurta wadaninimada dadweynaha Soomaaliyeed. Haddii Soomaaliya ay ku guuleysato kiiska, waxaa hubaal ah in Kenya ay bixin doonto mag-dhow.

CabdulQaadir Cariif Qaasim

F.G.: Fikradaha lagu dhiibto bartaan waa kuwa qoraaga u gaar ah, oo aan matalin kuwa wargayska, guddiga tifaftirka ama shaqaalaha.

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